Best Practices for Storing Images in MongoDB

In today’s world, storing images is an essential aspect of most applications. It allows users to upload and share their photos with others. MongoDB has become an increasingly popular database for storing data, including images, due to its scalability and flexibility.

Why Store Images in MongoDB?

MongoDB offers several advantages over traditional relational databases when it comes to image storage. These include:

– Scalability: MongoDB can handle large volumes of data, making it ideal for applications with a high volume of image uploads.
– Flexibility: Unlike relational databases that require strict schemas and table structures, MongoDB offers more flexible document-based storage.
– Performance: Since images are typically stored as binary files, they require fast read/write speeds. MongoDB’s ability to store binary data makes it well-suited for handling such files efficiently.

The Steps to Storing Images in MongoDB

Create a GridFS Bucket

GridFS is a file system abstraction layer built on top of the Mongo database engine that enables you to store large files or metadata by splitting them into smaller chunks across multiple documents.

To create a GridFS bucket in your project using Node.js driver:
const { MongoClient } = require(‘mongodb’);
const client = await MongoClient.connect(uri);
const db = client.db(databaseName);

// Create instance
const gridFsBucket = new mongodb.GridFSBucket(db);

You can add options like `bucketName` and `chunkSizeBytes`. By default chunk size 255KB will be used.

Upload the Image File

To save our first image in newly created GridFs Bucket we can use following code:
.on(‘finish’, () => {
console.log(`File ${filename} uploaded`);

Retrieve the Image File

To get an image stored in GridFs bucket by filename or id we can use code similar to:

This will stream the file content as a response.


Storing images in MongoDB is a relatively straightforward process. By using GridFS, you can take advantage of MongoDB’s scalability and flexibility while still being able to efficiently store binary data such as images. The steps outlined above should give you a solid understanding of how to start working with images in MongoDB and help you build robust applications capable of handling large volumes of image uploads.

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